Looking for information on the grounds for divorce? This article explores the various grounds for divorce, including adultery, cruelty, and desertion. We also discuss how to file for divorce on these grounds and what to expect from the divorce process. Whether you are considering divorce or just curious about the process, this article has everything you need to know about the grounds for divorce.

The following are the grounds for divorce in India mentioned under the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955.

 Grounds for divorce in India under the Hindu Marriage Act


The act of indulging in any kind of sexual relationship including intercourse outside marriage is termed as adultery. Adultery is counted as a criminal offence and substantial proofs are required to establish it. An amendment to the law in 1976 states that one single act of adultery is enough for the petitioner to get a divorce.

Grounds for divorce in India under the Hindu Marriage Act


 A spouse can file a divorce case when he/she is subjected to any kind of mental and physical injury that causes danger to life, limb and health. The intangible acts of cruelty through mental torture are not judged upon one single act but series of incidents. Certain instances like the food being denied, continuous ill treatment and abuses to acquire dowry, perverse sexual act and such are included under cruelty.


If one of the spouses voluntarily abandons his/her partner for at least a period of two years, the abandoned spouse can file adivorce case on the ground of desertion.


In case either of the two converts himself/herself into another religion, the other spouse may file a divorce case based on this ground.

Mental Disorder

 Mental disorder can become a ground for filing a divorce if the spouse of the petitioner suffers from incurable mental disorder and insanity and therefore cannot be expected from the couple to stay together.


In case of a ‘virulent and incurable’ form of leprosy, a petition can be filed by the other spouse based on this ground.

Venereal Disease

If one of the spouses is suffering from a serious disease that is easily communicable, a divorce can be filed by the other spouse. The sexually transmitted diseases like AIDS are accounted to be venereal diseases.


A spouse is entitled to file for a divorce if the other renounces all worldly affairs by embracing a religious order.

Not Heard Alive 

If a person is not seen or heard alive by those who are expected to be ‘naturally heard’ of the person for a continuous period of seven years, the person is presumed to be dead. The other spouse should need to file adivorce if he/she is interested in remarriage.

No Resumption of Co-habitation

It becomes a ground for divorce if the couple fails to resume their co-habitation after the court has passed a decree of separation.

 Petition can be filed only by the wife

The following are the grounds for divorce in India on which a petition can be filed only by the wife.

  1. If the husband has indulged in rape, bestiality and sodomy.
  2. If the marriage is solemnized before the Hindu Marriage Act and the husband has again married another woman in spite of the first wife being alive, the first wife can seek for a divorce.
  3. A girl is entitled to file for a divorce if she was married before the age of fifteen and renounces the marriage before she attains eighteen years of age.
  4. If there is no co-habitation for one year and the husband neglects the judgment of maintenance awarded to the wife by the court, the wife can contest for a divorce.

Dissolution of Muslim Marriage 

Based on the Dissolution of Muslim Marriage act, 1939, a Muslim woman can seek divorce on the following grounds for divorce in India.

  1. The husband’s whereabouts are unknown for a period of four years.
  2. The husband has failed to provide maintenance to the wife for at least two years.
  3. The husband has been under imprisonment for seven or more years.
  4. The husband is unable to meet the marital obligations.
  5. If the girl is married before fifteen and decides to end the relationship before she turns eighteen.
  6. The husband indulges in acts of cruelty.

Grounds of divorce under the Indian Divorce Act

Let us check out the following grounds of divorce mentioned under the Indian Divorce Act, 1869.

  1. Adultery
  2. Conversion to another religion
  3. One of the couples suffering from an unsound mind, leprosy or communicable venereal disease for at least two years before the filing of thedivorce.
  4. Not been seen or heard alive for the period of seven or more years.
  5. Failure in observing the restitution of conjugal rights for at least two years.
  6. Inflicting cruelty and giving rise to mental anxiety that can be injurious to health and life.
  7. Wife can file a divorce based on the grounds of rape, sodomy and bestiality.

 Parsi Marriage and Divorce Act

The following are the grounds for divorce in India included in the Parsi Marriage and Divorce Act, 1936 and the amendment of the same in 1988.

  1. Continuous absence of seven years.
  2. Non-consummation of marriage within one year.
  3. Unsound mind provided the other spouse was unaware of the fact at the time of marriage and the divorce must be filed within three years of marriage.
  4. Pregnancy by some other man provided the husband was unaware of the incident during the time of marriage and that he must not have undergone sexual intercourse after he came to know about the situation. Thedivorce must be filed within two years of marriage.
  5. Adultery, bigamy, fornication, rape, or any other type of perverse sexual act.
  6. Act of cruelty
  7. Suffering from venereal disease or forcing the wife into prostitution.
  8. Sentenced to prison for seven years or more
  9. Desertion for two or more years
  10. Non-resumption of cohabitation after passing an order of maintenance or a decree of judicial separation.